Explain why researchers who are operating in theory-testing mode might not try using a random sample in their study. What validity are they prioritizing? What aspects of their research are they emphasizing (for now)?
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The main goal of every research study is to be able to generate knowledge about the chosen topic and knowledge without being confined to a place, time, and date; hence we can say that main aim of research study is to be able to assess research findings with the intent to generalize them beyond the specific parameters of the research. It is the aim of a researcher through theoretical understandings, is to be able to establish a general understanding which would be able to apply in the world of subjective reality, with objectivity. For establishing generalizability, a researcher needs to focus on the external validity of the study, because the main emphasis, for the time being, would be to apply the theoretical knowledge across populations and settings; as empirical underpinnings are not enough to establish validity and without validity, it is not possible to generalize the research findings.
One of the important characteristics of science to prove its scientific stance in the world of standardization and experimentation, is to be able to generalize the research findings across different settings irrespective of time and space. However, many concepts in social science are not possible to measure while ignoring their subjective stance, therefore during the research, it is important to establish proper measures that reflect the theoretical underpinnings and constructs. Empirical investigations are often conducted under specific places and time-bounded by these particulars while it is our tasks to form general principles unbound by place and time from the general knowledge. It is impossible to produce any form of general knowledge without accurate available theory.
Proper and standardize sampling procedures might predict objective results, that is, the results would be similar across different contexts but it is also essential to link the measures with theoretical constructs in the study because without theoretical understandings it is not possible to generalize a knowledge into new settings.
External validity is an essentially important topic which explains the idea of Generalizability. External validity refers to whether the results of the research can be rightfully generalized to a bigger and broader population. Distinctions can be found in terms of how external validity is measured or described in the literature of the research, as some perceive it as a generalization of results from sample to the population, while for others it can be explained through generalizations across populations and settings.
Theoretical stances may have several empirical stances that are usually deduced, hence when researchers test the same theoretical propositions but with alternative empirical implications, they often do replication research and it involves testing the similar theoretical principles but with different research, that it, theoretical replication. This may involve different methodological settings and different measures but with similar theoretical principles, thereby support of theoretical principles through diverse replications we can establish the external validity and gain confidence in the theory.