Describe the categories of hazards that may be present in foods and suggest methods for their control and prevention.
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There are three main categories of food hazard. They include; Biological, chemical, and physical hazards. Biological hazards comprise of harmful bacteria, viruses, or parasites such as, Salmonella, hepatitis A and Trichinella (Panisello et al 169). Chemical hazards comprise of illness or injury causing compounds due to immediate or long-term exposure. Physical hazards include foreign objects in food that can cause harm when eaten, such as glass or metal fragments. Thirdly, physical Hazards are any potentially harmful extraneous matter not usually found in food. When a person mistakenly eats the foreign material or object, it is likely to cause choking, injury, or other adverse health effects. Physical hazards are the most frequently reported consumer complaints since the harm occurs instantly or shortly after eating, and the source of the hazard is often easy to ascertain.
Chemical hazards can be separated into naturally occurring chemicals, deliberately added chemicals, and accidentally or accidentally added chemicals. Chemical impurity can happen at any phase of food production and processing. Chemicals can be useful and are decisively used with some foods, such as pesticides on fruits and vegetables (Panisello et al 169). However, chemicals are never dangerous provided they are effectively applied and regulated. Possible risks to consumers tend to increase when chemicals are not properly controlled or the recommended treatment rates are surpassed. Chemical presence may not always guarantee a hazard. The chemical amount may determine whether it is a hazard or not. Some may need exposure for a prolonged time to have a toxic impact. Regulatory limits are set for some of those contaminants.
How do food recalls contribute to the safety of our nation’s food supply? What do you think are some strengths and weaknesses of this process?
Recalls have a significant role to play in the safety of the country’s food supply. The program is effective. A joint report from the by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO), sows that food recalls reduce the effects of food safety system letdowns on public health and the economy whereas maintaining a greater degree of public assurance in the food supply. Panisello, (170) also pointed out that the number of illnesses in outbreaks usually show a decline after recalls are introduced.
However, the food recalls are not without negativities in their initiation. Companies with weak food safety plans think it is all right to depend on their recall strategy hen a contamination occurs when it should really be a company’s very last line of defense if every other food safety measure fails (Panisello et al 171)
Companies do no know that they need to issue a recall until several cases of illness have been discovered by healthcare givers and connected back to a particular food product by public health specialists. Technology needs to improve the speed at which epidemics are traced to a food source, to avoid the current baseline majority of cases before the a recall is initiated
Recalls are not always effective since it takes long to remove the recalled product form the marketplace. There is always a probability that not all stores will eradicate the recalled product. In addition, not all consumers who bought the recalled product will be informed of the recall, or verify the item.
Provide a brief history of HACCP.
HACCP traces its roots in US.A since its development in the 1960s by Pillsbury Corporation to ensure food safety for the first operated space missions. The system was developed following an outbreak of illness in Scotland in 1996 whereby the Pennington Report recommended HACCP to be adopted by all food business to ensure food safety.
Describe the steps involved in the development and implementation of an HACCP plan.
To perform a hazard analysis for the development of a HACCP plan, food processors must gain a working knowledge of potential hazards (Panisello et al 170). The HACCP plan is designed to control all reasonably likely food-safety hazards. To perform a hazard analysis for the development of a HACCP plan, food processors must gain a working knowledge of potential hazards. The HACCP plan is designed to control all the three reasonably likely food-safety hazards.
The five stages entailed in HACCP are:
The first step is to gather the resources and team. For the development of an HACCP plan, a food processing business ought to have a collection of all the relevant knowledge as much as possible.
Secondly, the food business has to describe fully each food product its plant makes. Thirdly, developing a written list of ingredients and raw materials for each product is essential.The elements and raw materials will aid to concentrate on possible hazards in the food product produced.
The fourth stage is to create a course flow diagram that classifies all the steps applied in product preparation starting from receipt up to the final delivery, that are right under the control of the processing plant. Once the flow diagram is created, it ought to be verified by walking through the plant to make sure that the steps listed on the diagram describe what really occurs in manufacturing the product.
The final stage is to meet the Regulatory Requirements for Sanitation. The most basic way to ensure that a safe product is produced is to maintain good sanitation as it demonstrates that plant management has the obligation and resources to effectively implement the HACCP plan
What are the advantages of using HACCP rather than traditional food safety programs in retail food establishments?
HACCP has principles that emphasize constant problem solving and prevention. Furthermore, it enhances and boosts communication between industry and controllers. HACP also plays a key role in the reduction in product loss, Increase in product quality, better inventory control, consistency in product preparation, the increase in profit as well as increased employee awareness and participation in food safety. HACC is economical as compared to traditional programs that need a lot of resources as well as longer periods.
Describe critical control points and critical limits as they are used in HACCP programs and what happens when there is a deviation
Critical control points are those phases in the procedure where the possible hazards can occur and can be prevented and/or controlled. In in the event that a deviation occurs, corrective actions must be ensured to prevent public health hazards occurrences (Unnevehr and Jensen 631).
Why is monitoring an important step in the HACCP system?
Monitoring requirements to ensure each, CCP stays within its limit. Monitoring may need materials or strategies to measure or else evaluate the procedure at CCPs (Unnevehr and Jensen 630)
Unnevehr, Laurian J., and Helen H. Jensen. “The economic implications of using HACCP as a food safety regulatory standard.” Food policy 24.6 (1999): 625-635.
Panisello, Pedro Javier, and Peter Charles Quantick. “Technical barriers to hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP).” Food control 12.3 (2001): 165-173.
Sparks, Paul, and Richard Shepherd. “Public perceptions of the potential hazards associated with food production and food consumption: an empirical study.” Risk analysis 14.5 (1994): 799-806.