Chapter 10 and Chapter 11 Overview/Lecture Notes for Speech Analysis Assignment
The Speechmaking Process
Throughout your educational, professional, and social life, you have been called upon to speak to various audiences. If you have not, you will likely will be called to speak one day. A review of the chapters covered this semester highlights the intricacies involved in effective communication, and can also help us understand why public speaking/public communication is considered one of the most challenging of the eight broad areas of human communication (see Chapter 1 Overview/Lecture Notes for eight broad areas of Human Communication).
Whether we are preparing, presenting, or even listening effectively to a speech, three major areas are critical:
·Content(what is said in a speech)
·Structure(how a speech is organized)
·Delivery(how speakers use vocal and physical elements to present a message)
Additionally, effective public speaking involves a systematic process that includes several time-tested steps to improve the likelihood of success. In general, these steps are
1.Select a topic.
2.Select a general purpose (eitherto inform,to persuade, orto entertain;speaking to entertain includesspeeches of acceptance, speeches of introduction, keynote speeches, welcome speeches, after-dinner speeches, eulogies, toasts,andcommemorative speechessuch as graduation speeches and speeches commemorating or celebrating the anniversaries for historic events, etc.).
3.Develop a specific purpose (one audience-centered statement that identifies the goal for a speech). For example,
a.To inform my audience of three major developments in the history of the iPhone.
b.To persuade my audience to vote in the upcoming mayoral election in our city.
4.Develop a thesis statement (one sentence that summarizes the major ideas of a speech).
5.Research and support speech (use credible, scholarly resources to identify facts, examples, statistics, testimonies, etc., to support your main ideas; identify presentation/visual aids, if appropriate for the speech type).
6.Prepare outline/speaking notes (select best organizational pattern; develop introduction, body, and conclusion; develop transitions/signposts; prepare formal outline, speaking outline, or informal notes).
7.Practice delivery (use memorized, manuscript, impromptu, or extemporaneous delivery method; practice to make corrections, minimize/manage public speaking anxiety, and become comfortable with ideas being presented).
8.Present speech (use appropriate non-verbal communication, which includes vocal delivery, or how you use your voice to deliver a speech – rate, pitch, volume, variety, articulation, pronunciation, avoiding fillers, etc., and physical delivery, or how you use your body language to deliver a speech – facial expressions, eye contact, posture, hand gestures, body movement, etc.).
Ultimately, these steps are all for naught unless the most important part of the speechmaking process is considered: The audience. At each step in the process, speakers must be audience-centered, beginning with a formal audience analysis or with one simple question: “Who is my audience?”